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©2019 by Faculty of Science, Rangsit University

Why human especially some particular organs in human body require apoptosis?

อัพเดตเมื่อ: ก.พ. 19

The programmed cell death as an apoptosis is a mode of cell response by self-destruct that occurs under the normal physiologic and pathologic conditions with both of internal and external stimuli through a distinct series of cellular change in molecular level. In human body, about 100,000 cells a second are produces via mitotic activity similar to the rate of apoptosis that is responsible for destroy unwanted cell to complete the tissue or organ function and also balancing cell proliferation and maintain the cell number in each tissue to support the cell turnover. During apoptosis, the DNA become fragmented with chromatin condenses, nuclear explosion, cell shrinks and breaks to form apoptotic bodies.


The human organs are requiring the process of apoptosis in the stages of developing embryos to survived adult for development, homeostasis, and tissue defense.

  • Development: during the organ formation occur in embryonic and fetal stage, the apoptosis is an important to morphogenesis and completes organ function for example, the interdigital mesenchymal tissue during the limb formation, the degradations of Mullerian or Wolffian ducts during urogenital organ developing and sex determination.

  • Homeostasis: the rates of cell proliferation must be similar to cell death. This property as occurring in physiologic condition that cell can initiate their own death through activation of internal factor encoded self-destruct program to controlled autodigestion without explosion and another cell damaging. For example, the human immune system is generating several million of B and T cell every day, that about 95% of them are die during maturation.

  • Tissue defense: apoptosis must occur in the irreversible cell injury to remove damaged and dangerous cell which activated by biomolecular signaling such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) that acting on the death receptors at cell membrane. Including with other external stimuli such as free radicals, oxidants, UV, ionizing radiation are induced injured cell apoptosis.

In conclusion, the apoptosis is an important programmed cell death in the human body from the development until adult human for survive and response to cellular injury. The cellular mechanism in apoptosis is relate to several biomolecules activated by many stimuli that interaction may occur at the receptors on cell membrane or may occurring in side the cell through the organelle activity. The single cell death may not present more effects but in the human body, programmed cell death is control more than one cells to response in the tissue level and organ level that are necessary to make a complete function of each organ and also to control balance or homeostasis of the cell proliferation and cell destruction in whole life.

References

  • Abnova corporation (2020). Apoptosis. Available on website: http://www.abnova.com/support/resources.asp?switchfunctionid={CBB86AB6-2EA6-422F-BBBD-1CB8B9DCE6FA}. Accessed 20 January 2020.

  • Cooper G M, Hausman R E (2007), The Cell: A Molecular Approach.4th ed. Sinauer; U.S.A.

  • Ross M. H., Pawlina W. (2006). Histology: A text and atlas with correlated cell and molecular biology. 5th ed. Lippincott Willium & Wilkins; U.S.A.

  • Vaux D.L., Korsmeyer S.J. (1999). Cell death in development. Cell 96: 245--254.


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